Chapter

Free Will

Richard Swinburne

in Mind, Brain, and Free Will

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9780199662562
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780191748394 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662562.003.0008
Free Will

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Contrary to language-of-thought theory and in agreement with connectionism, there could not be causal laws relating types of particular conscious events to types of particular brain events, but only ones relating total conscious states to total brain states. Conscious events include events of innumerable different kinds (all totally different in nature from brain events) which cannot be measured on common scales; and no human at a given time has the same brain state as any human ever, or the same conscious state when considering difficult moral decisions. So no total determinisitic theory of which brain events cause and are caused by which conscious events could have enough evidence in its favour to be well justified. Hence we should believe that things are as they seem—that when we make difficult moral decisions we have free will. Neuroscience can show the influences on us, but cannot predict individual decisions.

Keywords: connectionism; free will; neuroscience; moral decisions; language-of-thought theory

Chapter.  21691 words. 

Subjects: Philosophy of Mind

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