Known Pharmacological Actions of Nine Nonpsychotropic Phytocannabinoids

Maria Grazia Cascio and Roger G. Pertwee

in Handbook of Cannabis

Published in print August 2014 | ISBN: 9780199662685
Published online January 2015 | e-ISBN: 9780191787560 | DOI:
Known Pharmacological Actions of Nine Nonpsychotropic Phytocannabinoids

Show Summary Details


Cannabis is known to be the source of several pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids that do not share the ability of Δ‎9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, to activate cannabinoid receptors. These are cannabichromene; cannabidiol and its propyl analogue, cannabidivarin, and acid, cannabidiolic acid; cannabigerol and its propyl analogue, cannabigerovarin, and acid, cannabigerolic acid; and two other cannabinoid acids, Δ‎9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and its propyl analogue, Δ‎9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid. This review describes the actions that each of these phytocannabininoids has been discovered to display to-date, in vitro, at nanomolar or micromolar concentrations, and/or in vivo. These actions include the activation, blockade or apparent allosteric modulation of certain receptors and ion channels, and the inhibition of certain enzymes and cellular uptake processes. Brief mention is also made of the ability of some of these phytocannabinoids to affect the fluidity of cell membranes, modulate cytokine release, reduce oxidative stress, and/or induce signs of neuroprotection.

Keywords: phytocannabinoids; cannabichromene; cannabidiol; cannabigerol; cannabinoid acids; propyl analogues; cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors; 5-HT1A receptors; α2-adrenoceptors; GPR55; TRP cation channels

Chapter.  9800 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.