John Hawthorne and David Manley

in The Reference Book

Published in print March 2012 | ISBN: 9780199693672
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191739002 | DOI:

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The Afterword re-evaluates the central questions of the book. It begins by examining the possibility (suggested by Paul Pietroski) that no expressions of natural language are paradigmatically referential, and that the only dedicated vehicles of reference are cognitive object representations of a special kind. It also reconsiders philosophical orthodoxy about reference and singular thought in light of the emerging semantic picture of the expressions we use to talk about particular individuals. They argue that, for those who have abandoned acquaintance-theoretic constraints, there is a more natural way of carving the semantic and cognitive joints.

Keywords: reference; acquaintance; singular thought; mental representation; language of thought; Mentalese; Paul Pietroski

Chapter.  3236 words. 

Subjects: Philosophy of Language

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