Early Writing

Scarlett Baron

in ‘Strandentwining Cable’

Published in print November 2011 | ISBN: 9780199693788
Published online January 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191732157 | DOI:

Series: Oxford English Monographs

Early Writing

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  • Literary Studies (20th Century onwards)


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Chapter 1 identifies and analyzes traces of Flaubert in Joyce’s early writing – the critical essays written between 1899 and 1902; entries in the Paris and Pola ‘Commonplace Book’ that Joyce kept in 1902–3 and then 1903–4; the short snippets of dramatic or narrative writing, collected between 1900 and 1903, to which he referred as ‘epiphanies’; and Stephen Hero. Contrary to W. B. Yeats’s assertion that Flaubert’s works were difficult to obtain in early twentieth-century Dublin, this chapter establishes that a number of Flaubert’s books were available to Joyce at the National Library of Ireland at that time, and, even more significantly, that Joyce purchased his own copies of both Madame Bovary and L’éducation sentimentale, in original French editions, as early as 1901. Even at this early stage, Flaubertian echoes adumbrate the importance of Joyce’s intertextual relationship to his French precursor in later works.

Keywords: W. B. Yeats; George Moore; epiphany; simultaneity; Henrik Ibsen; Georg Brandes; realism; impersonality

Chapter.  12426 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Literary Studies (20th Century onwards)

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