Evolution of psychiatric rehabilitation services in the united states

Robert E. Drake, Gary R. Bond and Deborah R. Becker

in Individual Placement and Support

Published in print October 2012 | ISBN: 9780199734016
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199949755 | DOI:

Series: Evidence-Based Practice

Evolution of psychiatric rehabilitation services in the united states

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This chapter traces the development of psychiatric rehabilitation services in the United States. Starting in the 1950s, when deinstitutionalization led to increasing numbers of people with serious mental illness returning to the community, the need for vocational services became apparent. Following deinstitutionalization, vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disorders went through several phases. In the 1950s and 1960s, vocational programs arose in a variety of institutional settings: hospitals, sheltered workshops, and halfway houses. In the 1970s and early 1980s, community mental health centers and comprehensive rehabilitation centers appeared throughout the United States. In the 1990s optimism regarding vocational rehabilitation increased as a number of vocational models appeared. In addition to transitional employment, influential vocational models included the psychiatric rehabilitation model, the job club model, the assertive community treatment model, and others. The discussion then turns to other social, political, clinical, and economic factors that affected the development of supported employment.

Keywords: mentally ill; employment; psychiatric rehabilitation; vocational rehabilitation; vocational models; supported employment

Chapter.  2443 words. 

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