“Strong as Steel, Steady as Stone”

Constance Elsberg

in Violence and New Religious Movements

Published in print March 2011 | ISBN: 9780199735631
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199894512 | DOI:
“Strong as Steel, Steady as Stone”

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Yogi Bhajan’s 3HO group can briefly be described as a blend of Kundalini yoga and Sikhism. Due to the strongly martial dimension of Sikhism, the group is thus heir to a militant tradition, which, one might suppose, could easily be used to justify violence. Also, particularly in the first decades of its existence, 3HO contained all of the key ideological and organizational characteristics that have been associated with violent new religions. However, the group has never been involved in violence, either external or internal. This chapter surveys the various factors that have mitigated against violence in 3HO.

Keywords: Sikh Dharma; Sikhism; new religious movements; Khalsa; millennialism; Yogi Bhajan; charisma; Kundalini yoga; violence; counterculture

Chapter.  12685 words. 

Subjects: Religious Studies

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