From Artaxerxes III to Alexander III, 342–332

Stephen Ruzicka

in Trouble in the West

Published in print April 2012 | ISBN: 9780199766628
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199932719 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Studies in Early Empires

From Artaxerxes III to Alexander III, 342–332

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This chapter sorts out the meager evidence for developments between Artaxerxes III's recovery of Egypt in 343/2 and Alexander's takeover of Egypt in 332. Despite apparent Persian success in the 340s, a native kingship was reestablished in the early 330s by Chababash, probably in the wake of Artaxerxes III's murder in 338. Absent the system of defensive fortifications established earlier, Chababash failed to hold Egypt in the face of renewed Persian enterprise, and probably by 335 Egypt was again under Persian control. Following his defeat of Persian forces (including the Persian satrap of Egypt) at Issus in 333, Alexander advanced on Egypt and received its surrender at Heliopolis from the Persian satrap. Posing as the liberator of Egypt from Persian control and assuming the Egyptian kingship, Alexander secured Egypt in various ways—proceeding through the Delta into Libya to assert his authority, dividing Egypt for administrative purposes into two districts each with its own overseer, and leaving a virtual army in Egypt. He clearly recognized the importance of control Egypt—the western core—as he moved eastward to gain control of the eastern core.

Keywords: Artaxerxes III; Bagoas; Chababash; Darius III; Alexander; Sabaces

Chapter.  5752 words. 

Subjects: Classical History

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