From Dilemma to Dualization

Patrick Emmenegger and Romana Careja

in The Age of Dualization

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780199797899
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199933488 | DOI:

Series: International Policy Exchange Series

From Dilemma to Dualization

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Western European governments face a dilemma. On the one hand, their immigrant population is growing. On the other hand, the public opposes large-scale immigration and wants to restrict immigrants’ access to social benefits. We argue that in ‘reluctant countries of immigration’ such as France, Germany, and Great Britain, this tension is attenuated by reforms of social and migration policies. Firstly, migration policies are changed to encourage the arrival of ‘desired’ workers, while barriers to entry for ‘undesired’ immigrants are erected. Secondly, immigrant-specific social security schemes are reformed in order to reduce the incentive for immigrants to come in the first place. Finally, immigrants are disproportionately affected by the cutbacks in social security programs since the 1990s. These reforms contribute to the persistence of socio-economic differences between immigrants and citizens despite considerable efforts aimed at integrating the immigrants into their host societies.

Keywords: immigration; guest workers; cheap labor; welfare chauvinism; illegal immigration; high-skilled immigrants; secondary labor market; dilemma; dualization

Chapter.  10333 words.  Illustrated.

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