Chapter

Critical Mass and Tipping

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory

Published in print February 2012 | ISBN: 9780199857203
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199932597 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0018
Critical Mass and Tipping

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This chapter is about how some things catch on while others do not. These situations are explained by the model “critical mass,”sometimes referred to as the “bandwagon effect.” An explanation of critical mass in a nuclear reaction is related to social science. The success or failure of many things is determined by whether “critical mass” is achieved so that increasing numbers are encouraged to join. An example of something achieving critical mass is presented, and this is McDonalds. The competition between Betamax and VHS for home video cassettes is discussed, and the 1989 critical mass achieved when Communist countries began collapsing is outlined. A subset Schelling introduced is presented and that is “tipping.” This typically refers to racial groups tipping in and out, as a previously homogeneously racial neighborhood becomes integrated. Tipping can describe any critical mass phenomenon. The “tipping point” is the exact point at which the reaction becomes self-sustaining. The chapter provides a number of instructions on converting numbers into a curve and determining the location of the tipping point, plus stable outcomes. A problem presented that deals with the Rodney King trial, which makes for a dramatic example of how much control of the tipping point can matter as a policy issue.

Keywords: critical mass model; bandwagon effect; unstable equilibrium; tipping point; racial tipping

Chapter.  4978 words. 

Subjects: Economics

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