This chapter examines how psychological conceptions of selfhood seem to have changed many students during the second half of the twentieth century. Four concerns—referred to as individualism, psychological interiorism (psychologism), reductionism, and manipulation (misleading conceptions and language about the measurement, research, and interventions of educational psychologists during the last half of the twentieth century are considered in depth. It is argued that such heavily psychologized descriptions and practices of the self helped to constitute new ways of being students. An idealized amalgam of these new forms is presented: the “triple E” student (expressive, enterprising, and entitled). This student as now assumed in school curricula and classroom settings is discussed in detail, especially as related to the phenomena of enterprise education and 21st-century skills.
Keywords: triple-E student; expressive; enterprising; entitled; individualism; interiorism; psychologism; enterprise education; 21st- century skills
Chapter. 10588 words.
Subjects: Social Psychology
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