Conclusion: Modernism, War, and the Memory of Spain after 1939

Gayle Rogers

in Modernism and the New Spain

Published in print October 2012 | ISBN: 9780199914975
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199980192 | DOI:

Series: Modernist Literature and Culture

Conclusion: Modernism, War, and the Memory of Spain after 1939

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I extend the trajectory of this final chapter in a brief conclusion that considers two cases—one journalistic, one lived—of the consequences of Franco’s victory and the outbreak of another World War for my narrative. After this stark disruption, Cyril Connolly in his journal Horizon (1940–49) and Ortega’s student María Zambrano in her Delirium and Destiny reflect on the unfinished international literary work that their modernist forebears began. As they pick up the themes of displacement and historical memory from two converging perspectives, one in London and one in Latin American exile, both see Spain as a synecdoche for the failure of European writers and intellectuals to prevent another war. My history of the formative, mutual influences of British and Spanish literatures ends with the shadow cast by World War II over the optimistic cosmopolitanism of the post-Great War moment that the figures in this study finally could not sustain—indeed, that was faltering and under attack from all sides from the start.

Keywords: María Zambrano; Cyril Connolly; Horizon; Delirium and Destiny; exile; nostalgia; war; memory

Chapter.  3849 words. 

Subjects: Literature

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