Chapter

Diffusion of Computing in Italy, Netherlands, and Sweden

James W. Cortada

in The Digital Flood

Published in print September 2012 | ISBN: 9780199921553
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199980406 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921553.003.0004
Diffusion of Computing in Italy, Netherlands, and Sweden

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This chapter explores how computers spread through the economies of Italy, Netherlands, and Sweden, exploring extent of diffusion, where in their economies this occurred, the key firms and universities involved, and the role of national governments in supporting the use of these technologies. The chapter argues that the nature of these economies and the structures and sizes of local industries played a significant role in influencing the rate and nature of adoption of computing from the 1950s to the early 2000s. It pays attention to the role of vendors, universities, and to knowledge transfer about information technologies from other parts of Europe and America into these three economies. The chapter demonstrates the effects of size of nation and the kinds of industries they had on how computers were appropriated.

Keywords: Italy; Netherlands; Sweden; information technologies; computers; National governments; diffusion; Wave One; IBM

Chapter.  24732 words. 

Subjects: Economic Development and Growth

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