Both New York City and Los Angeles received Annenberg Challenge grants to reform schools in the 1990s. This chapter explains the reform approach of the Annenberg Challenge in each city, compares it to current reforms, and shows how foundation grant-making has increased in the last decade. A new set of Boardroom Progressive education philanthropies—the Gates Foundation, Broad Foundation, and Walton Family Foundation—have adopted converging grant-making strategies. Compared to the Annenberg Challenge grants, the new grant-makers are able to leverage more resources in a more targeted way and empower new sets of actors in local education politics.
Keywords: philanthropy; foundations; Gates Foundation; Annenberg Challenge; New York City; Los Angeles; education reform; urban education
Chapter. 7965 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: US Politics
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