Chapter

Focalization

J. F. de Jong Irene

in Narratology and Classics

Published in print July 2014 | ISBN: 9780199688692
Published online April 2015 | e-ISBN: 9780191808562 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199688692.003.0003
Focalization

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This chapter examines one central element of a narrative: focalisation. Focalisation refers to the viewing of the events of the fabula, a series of events that are either supposed to have taken place (the suspension of disbelief characteristic of fiction) or that really have taken place (historiographical or biographical narratives). Since narration entails focalisation, the primary narrator of a narrative is always a primary narrator-focaliser. This chapter explains what a primary narrator-focaliser is compared to a secondary narrator-focaliser. It also considers the embedding of focalisation, how focalisation functions as the regulator of information, the concept of spatial standpoint, and the distinction between the narrator's experiencing focalisation and narrating focalisation. Finally, the chapter discusses two special types of focalisers: hypothetical focaliser and anonymous focaliser.

Keywords: narrative; focalisation; fabula; narration; primary narrator-focaliser; secondary narrator-focaliser; information; spatial standpoint; hypothetical focaliser; anonymous focaliser

Chapter.  8900 words. 

Subjects: Classical Literature

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