Journal Article

Pregnancy Hormone Metabolite Patterns, Pregnancy Symptoms, and Coffee Consumption

Christina C. Lawson, Grace K. LeMasters, Linda S. Levin and James H. Liu

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 156, issue 5, pages 428-437
Published in print September 2002 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online September 2002 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Pregnancy Hormone Metabolite Patterns, Pregnancy Symptoms, and Coffee Consumption

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Because of contradictory reports of pregnancy outcomes and coffee intake, this study was designed to determine how hormone metabolite levels, symptoms, and coffee consumption patterns are related. Eligible subjects were recruited in Cincinnati, Ohio, from 1996 to 1998, aged 18–40 years, and nonsmokers; drank at least 18 ounces (1 ounce = 29.6 ml) of coffee per week (including decaffeinated) at the last menstrual period; and were enrolled by 9 weeks from the last menstrual period. Beverage consumption and pregnancy symptoms were recorded daily. Weekly, first-morning urine samples were collected to assess human chorionic gonadotropin, estrone-3-glucuronide, and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. A time-dependent, repeated measures analysis was performed to test several associations. Data from 92 subjects were analyzed with the following results. 1) Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with weekly levels of estrone-3-glucuronide and human chorionic gonadotropin. 2) Weekly hours of nausea were significantly, directly associated with human chorionic gonadotropin and inversely with estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. 3) Weekly coffee consumption was significantly associated with vomiting but not with nausea or appetite loss. 4) Weekly levels of pregnanediol-3-glucuronide were 32.2% lower in subjects who drank at least 8 ounces of coffee/day at the last menstrual period, though above what was necessary to maintain those pregnancies. This study shows the significance of these important variables to be considered in future research.

Keywords: caffeine; coffee; estrogens; gonadotropins, chorionic; nausea; pregnancy; progesterone; Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.

Journal Article.  5957 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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