Journal Article

Use of Multiple Imputation to Correct for Nonresponse Bias in a Survey of Urologic Symptoms among African-American Men

Jeremy M. G. Taylor, Kristine L. Cooper, John T. Wei, Aruna V. Sarma, Trivellore E. Raghunathan and Steve G. Heeringa

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 156, issue 8, pages 774-782
Published in print October 2002 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online October 2002 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf110
Use of Multiple Imputation to Correct for Nonresponse Bias in a Survey of Urologic Symptoms among African-American Men

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The Flint Men’s Health Study is an ongoing population-based study of African-American men designed to address questions related to prostate cancer and urologic symptoms. The initial phase of the study was conducted in 1996–1997 in two stages: an interviewer-administered survey followed by a clinical examination. The response rate in the clinical examination phase was 52%. Thus, some data were missing for clinical examination variables, diminishing the generalizability of the results to the general population. This paper is a case study demonstrating the application of multiple imputation to address important questions related to prostate cancer and urologic symptoms in a data set with missing values. On the basis of the observed clinical examination data, the American Urological Association Symptoms Score showed a surprising reduction in symptoms in the oldest age group, but after multiple imputation there was a monotonically increasing trend with age. It appeared that multiple imputation corrected for nonresponse bias associated with the observed data. For other outcome measures—namely, the age-adjusted 95th percentile of prostate-specific antigen level and the association between urologic symptoms and prostate volume—results from the observed data and the multiply imputed data were similar.

Keywords: bias (epidemiology); Blacks; imputation; nonresponse; urology; Abbreviations: AUABS, American Urological Association Bother Score; AUASS, American Urological Association Symptoms Score; MCAR, missing completely at random; PSA, prostate-specific antigen.

Journal Article.  5850 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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