Journal Article

Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Gene Variants, Multivitamin Use, and Liver Intake as Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Denmark, 1991–1994

Laura E. Mitchell, Jeffrey C. Murray, Sarah O’Brien and Kaare Christensen

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 158, issue 1, pages 69-76
Published in print July 2003 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online July 2003 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg102
Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Gene Variants, Multivitamin Use, and Liver Intake as Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Denmark, 1991–1994

Show Summary Details

Preview

Previous studies suggest that the risks of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and isolated cleft palate are influenced by variation at several loci and that these loci interact with environmental factors to determine disease risk. One putative genetic risk factor for these conditions is the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) locus, which is involved in cell-specific responses to retinoic acid. Hence, RARA may influence disease risk via an interaction with vitamin A and related compounds. Data from a Danish case-control study (1991–1994) were used to evaluate the relations between oral clefts, RARA, and maternal vitamin A exposure from multivitamins and liver. Analyses provided no compelling evidence that the risks of CL±P or isolated cleft palate are related to the RARA variant analyzed. Consistent with several previous studies, the authors’ analyses indicated that maternal multivitamin supplement use protects against CL±P. Within the range observed in this population, higher levels of vitamin A intake from multivitamins and liver sources also seemed to protect against CL±P. Exploratory analyses suggested that the latter association was not entirely explained by the association between CL±P and multivitamin use, indicating that adequate levels of vitamin A may be required for normal development of the primary palate.

Keywords: case-control studies; cleft lip; cleft palate; genetics; pregnancy; receptors, retinoic acid; vitamins; Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; CL±P, cleft lip with or without cleft palate; CP, isolated cleft palate; OR, odds ratio; RARA, retinoic acid receptor alpha; RE, retinol equivalents.

Journal Article.  5517 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.