Journal Article

Population- and Community-based Recruitment of African Americans and Latinos

Daramöla N. Cabral, Anna M. Nápoles-Springer, Rei Miike, Alex McMillan, Jennette D. Sison, Margaret R. Wrensch, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable and John K. Wiencke

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 158, issue 3, pages 272-279
Published in print August 2003 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online August 2003 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Population- and Community-based Recruitment of African Americans and Latinos

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Empiric data on recruitment of minorities into clinical or population studies are limited. The authors evaluated population- and community-based recruitment methods in a 1998–2001 case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latinos. For lung cancer cases in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, rapid case ascertainment by the tumor registry combined with telephone screening identified 470 (9%) African Americans and 262 (5%) Latinos. When random digit dialing (RDD) and Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) records failed to yield adequate numbers of controls in appropriate age-gender-ethnicity groups, community-based recruitment methods were used. Demographic characteristics and behavioral and occupational risk factors for controls, by recruitment method, were compared with those for lung cancer cases to evaluate potential bias. The average numbers of hours spent per control recruited were 18.6 for RDD, 11.4 for HCFA, and less than 1 for the community-based methods. The prevalence of smoking-related lung cancer risk factors was significantly higher among African-American community-based controls than for those identified through RDD (p < 0.005). Compared with HCFA controls, Latino RDD controls reported significantly higher cumulative smoking exposure (p < 0.05). Further assessment of strategies for successful recruitment of minority participants into epidemiologic studies is warranted.

Keywords: case-control studies; epidemiologic methods; ethnic groups; investigative techniques; Abbreviations: HCFA, Health Care Financing Administration; RDD, random digit dialing.

Journal Article.  5207 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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