Journal Article

Factors Associated with Increased and Decreased Risk of <i>Campylobacter</i> Infection: A Prospective Case-Control Study in Norway

Georg Kapperud, Gyrid Espeland, Erik Wahl, Anna Walde, Hallgeir Herikstad, Stein Gustavsen, Ingvar Tveit, Olav Natås, Lars Bevanger and Asbjørn Digranes

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 158, issue 3, pages 234-242
Published in print August 2003 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online August 2003 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Factors Associated with Increased and Decreased Risk of Campylobacter Infection: A Prospective Case-Control Study in Norway

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In 1999–2000, a prospective case-control study of sporadic, domestically acquired campylobacteriosis was conducted in three counties in Norway to identify preventable risk factors and potentially protective factors. A total of 212 cases and 422 population controls matched by age, sex, and geographic area were enrolled. In conditional logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter infection: drinking undisinfected water, eating at barbecues, eating poultry bought raw, having occupational exposure to animals, and eating undercooked pork. The following factors were independently related to a decreased risk: eating mutton, eating raw fruits or berries, and swimming. Results indicated that infection is more likely to occur as a result of cross-contamination from raw poultry products than because of poultry consumption per se. Drinking undisinfected water, reported by 53% of cases, was a leading risk factor in this study. Drinking water may constitute the common reservoir linking infection in humans and animals, including poultry and wild birds. Insight into the ecology of Campylobacter in freshwater ecosystems may be required to understand the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis. The possibility that certain foods confer protection against campylobacteriosis deserves exploration.

Keywords: Campylobacter; Campylobacter infections; case-control studies; protective agents; risk factors

Journal Article.  6004 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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