Journal Article

Persistent Mood Symptoms in a Multiethnic Community Cohort of Pre- and Perimenopausal Women

Joyce T. Bromberger, Susan F. Assmann, Nancy E. Avis, Miriam Schocken, Howard M. Kravitz and Adriana Cordal

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 158, issue 4, pages 347-356
Published in print August 2003 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online August 2003 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Persistent Mood Symptoms in a Multiethnic Community Cohort of Pre- and Perimenopausal Women

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To further our understanding of the relation between mood and menopause, the authors examined 1) the association between persistent mood symptoms and menopausal status and 2) factors that increase a woman’s vulnerability to an overall dysphoric mood during the early perimenopausal period. The sample consisted of an ethnically diverse community cohort of 3,302 pre- and early perimenopausal women aged 42–52 years who were participants in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation, an ongoing US multisite longitudinal study of menopause and aging. At study entry (1995–1997), women reported information on recent menstrual regularity and premenstrual symptoms, as well as on sociodemographic, symptom, health, sleep, psychosocial, and lifestyle variables. Rates of persistent mood symptoms were higher among early perimenopausal women (14.9%–18.4%) than among premenopausal women (8%–12%). In analyses adjusting for major covariates and confounders, early perimenopausal women had higher odds of irritability, nervousness, and frequent mood changes but not of feeling “blue.” The effect of being early perimenopausal on overall dysphoric mood was greatest among women with an educational level of less than high school graduation. These findings suggest that persistent mood symptoms and overall dysphoric mood are associated with the early perimenopause, particularly among women with lower educational attainment.

Keywords: affect; depression; menopause; premenopause; women; Abbreviations: RE, Role-Emotional; SF-36, Short Form 36; SWAN, Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation.

Journal Article.  7370 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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