Journal Article

Prolonged Detection of Indigenous Wild Polioviruses in Sewage from Communities in Egypt

Laila El Bassioni, Ibrahim Barakat, Eman Nasr, Esther M. de Gourville, Tapani Hovi, Soile Blomqvist, Cara Burns, Mirja Stenvik, Howard Gary, Olen M. Kew, Mark A. Pallansch and Mohamed H. Wahdan

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 158, issue 8, pages 807-815
Published in print October 2003 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online October 2003 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg202
Prolonged Detection of Indigenous Wild Polioviruses in Sewage from Communities in Egypt

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Environmental surveillance for polioviruses has been implemented in Egypt. This paper reports on a study in which 130 sewage samples were collected between January 2001 and December 2001 from eight provinces of Egypt. Samples were analyzed by virus isolation in L20B and RD cell cultures, and wild polioviruses were characterized by sequencing of the VP1 protein coding region. Wild type 1 polioviruses were detected in 57% of the sewage samples and 91% of the study sites, only two of which reported paralytic poliomyelitis cases in 2001. Three genetic lineages of a single indigenous type 1 poliovirus genotype were detectable in sewage, and only one lineage was also detected through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. Wild polioviruses persisted in the environment despite implementation of oral poliovirus vaccine immunization campaigns. Continued analysis of sewage samples, critical evaluation of immunization coverage, and performance of surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis are proposed as follow-up activities.

Keywords: Egypt; environment; environmental monitoring; phylogeny; poliovirus; population surveillance; sequence analysis; sewage; Abbreviations: AFP, acute flaccid paralysis; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; KTL, National Public Health Institute (Helsinki, Finland); OPV, oral poliovirus vaccine; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; VACSERA, Egyptian Organization for Biological Products and Vaccine Production.

Journal Article.  5574 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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