Journal Article

Community-Level Predictors of Pneumococcal Carriage and Resistance in Young Children

Susan S. Huang, Jonathan A. Finkelstein, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Ken Kleinman and Richard Platt

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 159, issue 7, pages 645-654
Published in print April 2004 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online April 2004 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Community-Level Predictors of Pneumococcal Carriage and Resistance in Young Children

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Public Health and Epidemiology


Show Summary Details


Pneumococcal carriage and resistance vary markedly among communities and are not fully explained by individual predictors. Community risk factors may explain this variation. The authors geocoded addresses from a multicommunity sample of 710 Massachusetts children previously swabbed for pneumococcal carriage in 2001. Using regression models, the authors evaluated associations between census tract measures and pneumococcal carriage or resistance. Living in census tracts with an average household size of more than 2.9 predicted carriage (odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 5.5), and living in socioeconomically disadvantaged census tracts conferred an additional two- to threefold odds of carriage equal to attending child care. Living in a census tract with a median household income of less than $35,000 predicted carriage among nonattendees (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 4.3). The predictive value of a low-income census tract was interchangeable with any of several socioeconomic measures, including poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and low owner occupancy, in addition to high density of children and limited household plumbing facilities. Furthermore, living in census tracts with low educational attainment significantly predicted resistance (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 12.7) and was interchangeable with a high density of children (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 11.7). The two- to threefold odds of pneumococcal carriage conferred by certain community characteristics suggest that these measures may target communities for interventions to decrease transmission.

Keywords: census; drug resistance; poverty; risk factors; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Abbreviation: PNSP, penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Journal Article.  6712 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.