Journal Article

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural Community in the United States

Tedd V. Ellerbrock, Sandra Chamblee, Timothy J. Bush, Johnny W. Johnson, Bryan J. Marsh, Pam Lowell, Robert J. Trenschel, C. Fordham von Reyn, Linda S. Johnson and C. Robert Horsburgh

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 160, issue 6, pages 582-588
Published in print September 2004 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online September 2004 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh262
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural Community in the United States

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In 1986, a population-based survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a rural Florida community showed that HIV prevalence was 28/877 (3.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.4). In 1998–2000, the authors performed a second population-based survey in this community and a case-control study to determine whether HIV prevalence and risk factors had changed. After 609 addresses had been randomly selected for the survey, 516 (85%) residents were enrolled, and 447 (73%) were tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 7/447 (1.6%, 95% CI: 0.4, 2.7) in western Palm Beach County and 5/286 (1.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 3.3) in Belle Glade (p = 0.2 in comparison with 1986). Independent predictors of HIV infection in both 1986 and 1998–2000 were having a history of sexually transmitted disease, number of sex partners, and exchanging money or drugs for sex. A history of having sex with men was a risk factor among men in 1986 but not in 1998–2000; residence in specific neighborhoods was a risk factor in 1998–2000 but not in 1986. The authors conclude that heterosexually acquired HIV infection did not spread throughout the community between 1986 and 1998 but persisted at a low level in discrete neighborhoods. Interventions targeting HIV-endemic neighborhoods will be needed to further reduce HIV prevalence in this area.

Keywords: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; crack cocaine; HIV; HIV infections; risk factors; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted diseases; Abbreviations: AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.

Journal Article.  4815 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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