Journal Article

Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and the Genetics of Osteoporosis: A HuGE Review

L. Gennari, D. Merlotti, V. De Paola, A. Calabrò, L. Becherini, G. Martini and R. Nuti

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 161, issue 4, pages 307-320
Published in print February 2005 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online February 2005 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi055
Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and the Genetics of Osteoporosis: A HuGE Review

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Osteoporosis (OMIM166710) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with increased susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis has a complex etiology and is considered a multifactorial polygenic disease in which genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental, and nutritional factors. Estrogens are known to play an important role in regulating bone homeostasis and preventing postmenopausal bone loss. They act through binding to two different estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα (OMIM133430) and ERβ (OMIM601663), which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Different polymorphisms have been described in both the ER α and ER β genes. Although a large number of association studies have been performed, the individual contribution of these polymorphisms to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains to be universally confirmed. Moreover, an important aim in future work will be to define their functional molecular consequences and their interaction with the environment in the causation of the osteoporotic phenotype. A further promising application of these polymorphisms comes from their pharmacogenomic implications, with the possibility of providing better guidance for therapeutic regimens, such as estrogen replacement therapy and selective ER modulators. At the moment, no recommendations for population-based screening can be made.

Keywords: epidemiology; estrogen receptor alpha; estrogen receptor beta; genetics; genome, human; osteoporosis; polymorphism, genetic; BMD, bone mineral density; ER, estrogen receptor; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; VDR, vitamin D receptor; VNTR, variable number of tandem repeats.

Journal Article.  10411 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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