Journal Article

Gas Cooking and Smoking Habits and the Risk of Childhood and Adolescent Wheeze

Georges de Bilderling, Anoop J. Chauhan, Jim A. R. Jeffs, Nicholas Withers, Sebastian L. Johnston, Stephen T. Holgate and Joanne B. Clough

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 162, issue 6, pages 513-522
Published in print September 2005 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Gas Cooking and Smoking Habits and the Risk of Childhood and Adolescent Wheeze

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Public Health and Epidemiology


Show Summary Details


The authors investigated the risk of wheezing illnesses in relation to contemporaneous pollutant exposures (gas cooking, heating, and smoking) in childhood and adolescence in a cohort of 2,289 United Kingdom subjects. Data from two questionnaires assessing wheezing at ages 7–8 and 15–17 years and one questionnaire on current and past pollutant exposures at age 16–18 years were studied (1987–1996). The 1,868 subjects returning all three questionnaires were divided into three groups representing childhood (10.5%), adolescent (10.9%), and persistent (i.e., both; 16.3%) wheezing and compared with 1,165 controls (62.4%) without wheezing. The estimated risks of childhood wheezing were increased by exposure to any gas in childhood (odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.04) and exposure to a gas hob in childhood (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.16) and were increased further in those persistently exposed. Risk of persistent wheezing in adolescence was paradoxically reduced by exposure to a gas hob (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.91), possibly because of selection avoidance. Contemporaneous exposure to combined smoking by both parents was associated with wheezing in all groups (odds ratios ranged from 1.62 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.46) to 1.93 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.38)). Maternal smoking alone was associated with persistent wheezing and with both childhood (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.39) and persistent (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.14) wheezing if smoking occurred throughout childhood and adolescence. The authors conclude that exposures to gas cooking and smoking in childhood and adolescence increase the overall risk of wheezing.

Keywords: adolescent; air pollution, indoor; asthma; cookery; signs and symptoms, respiratory; smoking; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio

Journal Article.  5934 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.