Journal Article

Evaluation of Offspring and Maternal Genetic Effects on Disease Risk Using a Family-based Approach: The “Pent” Design

Laura E. Mitchell and Clarice R. Weinberg

in American Journal of Epidemiology

Published on behalf of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Volume 162, issue 7, pages 676-685
Published in print October 2005 | ISSN: 0002-9262
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1476-6256 | DOI:
Evaluation of Offspring and Maternal Genetic Effects on Disease Risk Using a Family-based Approach: The “Pent” Design

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Diseases that develop during gestation may be influenced by the genotype of the mother and the inherited genotype of the embryo/fetus. However, given the correlation between maternal and offspring genotypes, differentiating between inherited and maternal genetic effects is not straightforward. The two-step transmission disequilibrium test was the first, family-based test proposed for the purpose of differentiating between maternal and offspring genetic effects. However, this approach, which requires data from “pents” comprising an affected child, mother, father, and maternal grandparents, provides biased tests for maternal genetic effects when the offspring genotype is associated with disease. An alternative approach based on transmissions from grandparents provides unbiased tests for maternal and offspring genetic effects but requires genotype information for paternal grandparents in addition to pents. The authors have developed two additional, pent-based approaches for the evaluation of maternal and offspring genetic effects. One approach requires the assumption of genetic mating type symmetry (pent-1), whereas the other does not (pent-2). Simulation studies demonstrate that both of these approaches provide valid estimation and testing for offspring and maternal genotypic effects. In addition, the power of the pent-1 approach is comparable with that of the approach based on data using all four grandparents.

Keywords: alleles; epidemiologic methods; genotype; linkage disequilibrium; linkage (genetics); models, genetic; models, statistical; TDT, transmission disequilibrium test

Journal Article.  6405 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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