Journal Article

Detection of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in Skin Surface Lipids as Biomarkers of Ethanol Consumption in Alcoholics, Social Drinkers, Light Drinkers, and Teetotalers Using a Methodology Based on Microwave-Assisted Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Fernando González-Illán, Geovannie Ojeda-Torres, Liz M. Díaz-Vázquez and Osvaldo Rosario

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 35, issue 4, pages 232-237
Published in print May 2011 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online May 2011 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/anatox/35.4.232
Detection of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in Skin Surface Lipids as Biomarkers of Ethanol Consumption in Alcoholics, Social Drinkers, Light Drinkers, and Teetotalers Using a Methodology Based on Microwave-Assisted Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be a direct alcohol marker and are mainly investigated in hair samples for their ability to be incorporated into this matrix from sebum. The present study used an already developed methodology to provide and confirm information about the use of FAEEs in skin surface lipids as markers of alcohol consumption. The skin surface lipids were collected with Sebutapes® from the foreheads of teetotalers, light drinkers, social drinkers, and alcoholics. The samples were analyzed by direct solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate. Relative FAEE/sebum allowed an evaluation of alcohol consumption. The ranges obtained for relative FAEEs in each category were as follows, teetotalers (0–13.85 pg/mg), light drinkers (11.10–26.80 pg/mg), social drinkers (20.55–86.55 pg/mg), and alcoholics (109.00–1243.40 pg/mg). A social drinker volunteer was monitored during a period of two months. The highest mFAEE/msebum were generally detected 7–9 days after the days of high alcohol consumption. From these results, a clear distinction of teetotalers, social drinkers, and alcoholics could be established with the methodology used.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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