Journal Article

Ethyl Glucuronide, Ethyl Sulfate, and Ethanol in Urine after Intensive Exposure to High Ethanol Content Mouthwash

Gary M. Reisfield, Bruce A. Goldberger, Amadeo J. Pesce, Bridgit O. Crews, George R. Wilson, Scott A. Teitelbaum and Roger L. Bertholf

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 35, issue 5, pages 264-268
Published in print June 2011 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online June 2011 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI:
Ethyl Glucuronide, Ethyl Sulfate, and Ethanol in Urine after Intensive Exposure to High Ethanol Content Mouthwash

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To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine® antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 µg/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 µg/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 µg/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 µg/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 µg/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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