Journal Article

Comparative Developmental Anatomy of Seedlings in Nine Species of Podostemaceae (Subfamily Podostemoideae)

KOJI SUZUKI, YOKO KITA and MASAHIRO KATO

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 89, issue 6, pages 755-765
Published in print June 2002 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online June 2002 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf109
Comparative Developmental Anatomy of Seedlings in Nine Species of Podostemaceae (Subfamily Podostemoideae)

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The developmental anatomy is described for seedlings of nine Asian and Australian species of Podostemaceae, subfamily Podostemoideae. The hypocotyl is rudimentary (except in Zeylanidium olivaceum) and does not form a primary root in any of the species examined. An adventitious root forms endogenously in the hypocotyl of six species with ribbon‐like or flattened subcylindrical roots, and in Z. olivaceum with foliose roots. In contrast, it forms exogenously in Hydrobryum griffithii and Synstylis micranthera with foliose roots. The juvenile root becomes flattened and dorsiventral, branches exogenously (in Polypleurum stylosum, P. wallichii and Z. lichenoides) and produces shoots endogenously (in P. stylosum, P. wallichii, S. micranthera and Z. lichenoides). The root meristem is simple, composed of surface and uniform inner cells, and is devoid of root cap initials in all species. The reduced meristem morphology of seedling roots may be primitive in the Asian–Australian Podostemoideae. A root cap or protective tissue did not form during the culture period, even in the seven species with capped adult roots, probably due to its delayed development. It was absent throughout ontogeny in the other two species. No obvious shoot apical meristem forms between the cotyledons. One to several leaves occupy the shoot apical area in species with endogenous adventitious roots, while no leaves are formed in species with exogenous roots. These differences suggest recurrent origins of foliose roots in the Asian clade. Similarities between the unique seedling morphology and mutant Arabidopsis phenotypes are discussed.

Keywords: Key words: Adventitious root, developmental anatomy, evolution, hypocotyl, Podostemaceae, primary root (radicle), root cap, seedling, shoot apex.

Journal Article.  6996 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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