Journal Article

Allocation to Reproduction and Relative Reproductive Costs in Two Species of Dioecious Anacardiaceae with Contrasting Phenology

Shuhei Matsuyama and Michinori Sakimoto

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 101, issue 9, pages 1391-1400
Published in print June 2008 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online April 2008 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn048
Allocation to Reproduction and Relative Reproductive Costs in Two Species of Dioecious Anacardiaceae with Contrasting Phenology

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  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Background and Aims

The cost of reproduction in dioecious plants is often female-biased. However, several studies have reported no difference in costs of reproduction between the sexes. In this study, the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e. physiological stage of development).

Methods

Male and female Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa were sampled and the reproductive and vegetative allocation of the shoot were estimated by harvesting reproductive current-year shoots during flowering and fruiting. Measurements were made of the number of reproductive and total current-year shoots per whole plant, and of the basal area increment (BAI). The numbers of reproductive and total current-year shoots per 1-year-old shoot were counted in order to examine the costs in the following year at the shoot level.

Key Results

A female-biased annual reproductive allocation was found; however, the ratio of reproductive current-year shoots per tree and the BAI did not differ between sexes in Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa. The percentage of 1-year-old shoots with at least one reproductive current-year shoot was significantly male-biased in R. trichocarpa, but not in R. javanica, indicating that there was a relative cost at the shoot level only in R. trichocarpa. The female-biased leaf mass per shoot, an indicator of compensation for costs, was only found in R. javanica.

Conclusions

Relative reproductive costs at the shoot level were detected in Rhus trichocarpa, which has simultaneous leafing and flowering, but not in R. javanica, which has leafing followed by flowering. However, the costs for the whole-plant level were diminished in both species. The results suggest that the phenophase type may produce the different costs for R. javanica and R. trichocarpa through the development of a compensation mechanism.

Keywords: Modularity; phenology; reproductive allocation; reproductive cost; Rhus javanica; Rhus trichocarpa

Journal Article.  6908 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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