Journal Article

Inhibition of <i>chalcone synthase</i> Expression in Anthers of <i>Raphanus sativus</i> with Ogura Male Sterile Cytoplasm

Soojung Yang, Toru Terachi and Hiroshi Yamagishi

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 102, issue 4, pages 483-489
Published in print October 2008 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online July 2008 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI:
Inhibition of chalcone synthase Expression in Anthers of Raphanus sativus with Ogura Male Sterile Cytoplasm

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  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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Background and Aims

Expression of the mitochondrial gene orf138 causes Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Raphanus sativus, but little is known about the mechanism by which CMS takes place. A preliminary microarray experiment revealed that several nuclear genes concerned with flavonoid biosynthesis were inhibited in the male-sterile phenotype. In particular, a gene for one of the key enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase (CHS), was strongly inhibited. A few reports have suggested that the inhibition of CHS causes nuclear-dependent male sterile expression; however, there do not appear to be any reports elucidating the effect of CHS on CMS expression. In this study, the expression patterns of the early genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, including CHS, were investigated in normal and male-sterile lines.


In order to determine the aberrant stage for CMS expression, the characteristics of male-sterile anthers are observed using light and transmission electron microscopy for several stages of flower buds. The expression of CHS and the other flavonoid biosynthetic genes in the anthers were compared between normal and male-sterile types using real time RT-PCR.

Key Results

Among the flavonoid biosynthetic genes analysed, the expression of CHS was strongly inhibited in the later stages of anther development in sterility cytoplasm; accumulation of putative naringenin derivatives was also inhibited.


These results show that flavonoids play an important role in the development of functional pollen, not only in nuclear-dependent male sterility, but also in CMS.

Keywords: Chalcone Synthase; flavonoids; Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility; CMS; pollen; Raphanus sativus

Journal Article.  4318 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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