Journal Article

A bicontinental origin of polyploid Australian/New Zealand <i>Lepidium</i> species (Brassicaceae)? Evidence from genomic <i>in situ</i> hybridization

Tom Dierschke, Terezie Mandáková, Martin A. Lysak and Klaus Mummenhoff

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 104, issue 4, pages 681-688
Published in print September 2009 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online July 2009 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp161
A bicontinental origin of polyploid Australian/New Zealand Lepidium species (Brassicaceae)? Evidence from genomic in situ hybridization

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  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Background and Aims

Incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear DNA phylogenies, and single additive nucleotide positions in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of polyploid Australian/New Zealand (NZ) Lepidium species have been used to suggest a bicontinental hybrid origin. This pattern was explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium species from California and Africa and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA sequence either to the Californian (C-clade) or to the African ITS-type (A-clade) in two different ITS-lineages of Australian/NZ Lepidium polyploids.

Methods

Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to unravel the genomic origin of polyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes was applied to test the purported ITS evolution, and to facilitate chromosome counting in high-numbered polyploids.

Key Results

In Australian/NZ A-clade Lepidium polyploids, GISH identified African and Australian/NZ C-clade species as putative ancestral genomes. Neither the African nor the Californian genome were detected in Australian/NZ C-clade species and the Californian genome was not detected in Australian/NZ A-clade species. Five of the eight polyploid species (from 7x to 11x) displayed a diploid-like set of rDNA loci. Even the undecaploid species Lepidium muelleriferdinandi (2n = 11x = 88) showed only one pair of each rDNA repeat. In A-clade allopolyploids, in situ rDNA localization combined with GISH corroborated the presence of the African ITS-type.

Conclusions

The nuclear genomes of African and Australian/NZ C-clade species were detected by GISH in allopolyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species of the A-clade, supporting their hybrid origin. The presumed hybrid origin of Australian/NZ C-clade taxa could not be confirmed. Hence, it is assumed that Californian ancestral taxa experienced rapid radiation in Australia/NZ into extant C-clade polyploid taxa followed by hybridization with African species. As a result, A-clade allopolyploid Lepidium species share the Californian chloroplast type and the African ITS-type with the C-clade Australian/NZ polyploid and African diploid species, respectively.

Keywords: Lepidium; Brassicaceae; FISH; GISH; hybridization; polyploidy; long-distance dispersal; ITS; rDNA; Australia; New Zealand

Journal Article.  4888 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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