Journal Article

Changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (<i>Actinidia deliciosa</i>) berry

Brunella Morandi, Luigi Manfrini, Pasquale Losciale, Marco Zibordi and Luca Corelli Grappadelli

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 105, issue 6, pages 913-923
Published in print June 2010 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online April 2010 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq070
Changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry

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  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Background and Aims

The kiwifruit berry is characterized by an early stage of rapid growth, followed by a relatively long stage of slow increase in size. Vascular and transpiration flows are the main processes through which water and carbon enter/exit the fruit, determining the daily and seasonal changes in fruit size. This work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season.

Methods

The daily patterns of phloem, xylem and transpiration in/outflows have been determined at several stages of kiwifruit development, during two seasons. The different flows were quantified by comparing the diurnal patterns of diameter change of fruit, which were then girdled and subsequently detached while measurements continued. The diurnal courses of leaf and stem water potential and of fruit pressure potential were also monitored at different times during the season.

Key Results

Xylem and transpiration flows were high during the first period of rapid volume growth and sharply decreased with fruit development. Specific phloem import was lower and gradually decreased during the season, whereas it remained constant at whole-fruit level, in accordance with fruit dry matter gain. On a daily basis, transpiration always responded to vapour pressure deficit and contributed to the daily reduction of fruit hydrostatic pressure. Xylem flow was positively related to stem-to-fruit pressure potential gradient during the first but not the last part of the season, when xylem conductivity appeared to be reduced.

Conclusions

The fruit growth model adopted by this species changes during the season due to anatomical modifications in the fruit features.

Keywords: Actinidia deliciosa; fruit growth; xylem; phloem; fruit transpiration; water relationships; vapour pressure deficit

Journal Article.  7867 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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