Journal Article

Reproductive isolation and pollination success of rewarding <i>Galearis diantha</i> and non-rewarding <i>Ponerorchis chusua</i> (Orchidaceae)

Hai-Qin Sun, Bao-Qiang Huang, Xiao-Hong Yu, Yong Kou, De-Jun An, Yi-Bo Luo and Song Ge

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 107, issue 1, pages 39-47
Published in print January 2011 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online October 2010 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI:
Reproductive isolation and pollination success of rewarding Galearis diantha and non-rewarding Ponerorchis chusua (Orchidaceae)

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


Show Summary Details


Background and Aims

Increasing evidence challenges the conventional perception that orchids are the most distinct example of floral diversification due to floral or prezygotic isolation. Regarding the relationship between co-flowering plants, rewarding and non-rewarding orchids in particular, few studies have investigated whether non-rewarding plants affect the pollination success of rewarding plants. Here, floral isolation and mutual effects between the rewarding orchid Galearis diantha and the non-rewarding orchid Ponerorchis chusua were investigated.


Flowering phenological traits were monitored by noting the opening and wilting dates of the chosen individual plants. The pollinator pool and pollinator behaviour were assessed from field observations. Key morphological traits of the flowers and pollinators were measured directly in the field. Pollinator limitation and interspecific compatibility were evaluated by hand-pollination experiments. Fruit set was surveyed in monospecific and heterospecific plots.

Key Results

The species had overlapping peak flowering periods. Pollinators of both species displayed a certain degree of constancy in visiting each species, but they also visited other flowers before landing on the focal orchids. A substantial difference in spur size between the species resulted in the deposition of pollen on different regions of the body of the shared pollinator. Hand-pollination experiments revealed that fruit set was strongly pollinator-limited in both species. No significant difference in fruit set was found between monospecific plots and heterospecific plots.


A combination of mechanical isolation and incomplete ethological isolation eliminates the possibility of pollen transfer between the species. These results do not support either the facilitation or competition hypothesis regarding the effect of nearby rewarding flowers on non-rewarding plants. The absence of a significant effect of non-rewarding P. chusua on rewarding G. diantha can be ascribed to low levels of overlap between the pollinator pools of two species.

Keywords: Galearis diantha; Ponerorchis chusua; rewarding and non-rewarding; mechanical isolation; ethological isolation; pollinator limitation; fruit set

Journal Article.  7065 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.