Journal Article

Juvenility and flowering of <i>Brunonia australis</i> (Goodeniaceae) and <i>Calandrinia</i> sp. (Portulacaceae) in relation to vernalization and daylength

Robyn L. Cave, Colin J. Birch, Graeme L. Hammer, John E. Erwin and Margaret E. Johnston

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 108, issue 1, pages 215-220
Published in print July 2011 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online May 2011 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI:
Juvenility and flowering of Brunonia australis (Goodeniaceae) and Calandrinia sp. (Portulacaceae) in relation to vernalization and daylength

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  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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Background and Aims

The time at which plants are transferred to floral inductive conditions affects the onset of flowering and plant morphology, due to juvenility. Plants of Brunonia australis and Calandrinia sp. were used to investigate whether Australian native ephemeral species show a distinct juvenile phase that can be extended to increase vegetative growth and flowering.


The juvenile phase was quantified by transferring seedlings from less inductive (short day and 30/20°C) to inductive (vernalization or long day) conditions at six different plant ages ranging from 4 to 35 d after seed germination. An increase in days to first visible floral bud and leaf number were used to signify the end of juvenility.

Key Results

Brunonia australis was receptive to floral inductive long day conditions about 18–22 d after seed germination, whereas plants aged 4–35 d appeared vernalization sensitive. Overall, transferring plants of B. australis from short to long day conditions reduced the time to anthesis compared with vernalization or constant short day conditions. Calandrinia sp. showed a facultative requirement for vernalization and an insensitive phase was not detected. Floral bud and branch production increased favourably as plant age at time of transfer to inductive conditions increased. Younger plants showed the shortest crop production time.


Both species can perceive the vernalization floral stimulus from a very young age, whereas the photoperiodic stimulus is perceived by B. australis after a period of vegetative growth. However, extending the juvenile phase can promote foliage development and enhance flower production of both species.

Keywords: Brunonia australis; Calandrinia sp.; juvenility; flowering; leaf number; photoperiod; vernalization

Journal Article.  3535 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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