Journal Article

QTL analysis of heterostyly in <i>Primula sieboldii</i> and its application for morph identification in wild populations

Yasuko Yoshida, Saneyoshi Ueno, Masanori Honjo, Naoko Kitamoto, Mihoko Nagai, Izumi Washitani, Yoshihiko Tsumura, Yasuo Yasui and Ryo Ohsawa

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 108, issue 1, pages 133-142
Published in print July 2011 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online January 2011 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI:
QTL analysis of heterostyly in Primula sieboldii and its application for morph identification in wild populations

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


Show Summary Details


Background and Aims

Primula sieboldii is a perennial clonal herb that is distributed around the Sea of Japan and is endangered in Japan. Its breeding system is characterized by heteromorphic self-incompatibility, and the morph ratio within a population is very important for reproductive success. The aims of this study were to construct a linkage map, map the S locus as a qualitative trait and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral morphological traits related to heterostyly, and predict the morph type in wild populations by using molecular markers for devising a conservation strategy.


A linkage map was constructed with 126 markers. The QTLs for four floral traits and the S locus were mapped. Using the genotypes of loci that were located near both the S locus and the QTLs with large effects, morphs of 59 wild genets were predicted.

Key Results

The linkage map consisted of 14 linkage groups (LGs). The S locus was mapped to LG 7. Major QTLs for stigma and anther heights were detected in the same region as the S locus. These QTLs exhibited high logarithm of the odds scores and explained a high percentage of the phenotypic variance (>85 %). By analysing these two traits within each morph, additional QTLs for each trait were detected. Using the four loci linked to the S locus, the morphs of 43 genets in three wild populations could be predicted.


This is the first report of a linkage map and QTL analysis for floral morphology related to heterostyly in P. sieboldii. Floral morphologies related to heterostyly are controlled by the S locus in LG 7 and by several QTLs in other LGs. Additionally, this study showed that molecular markers are effective tools for investigating morph ratios in a population containing the non-flowering individuals or during the non-flowering seasons.

Keywords: Heterostyly; floral morphology; QTL analysis; Primula sieboldii; morph identification; monitoring of morph ratio

Journal Article.  6464 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.