Journal Article

Evolution of the tetraploid <i>Anemone multifida</i> (2<i>n</i> = 32) and hexaploid <i>A. baldensis</i> (2<i>n</i> = 48) (Ranunculaceae) was accompanied by rDNA loci loss and intergenomic translocation: evidence for their common genome origin

J. Mlinarec, Z. Šatović, N. Malenica, I. Ivančić-Baće and V. Besendorfer

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 110, issue 3, pages 703-712
Published in print August 2012 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online June 2012 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcs128
Evolution of the tetraploid Anemone multifida (2n = 32) and hexaploid A. baldensis (2n = 48) (Ranunculaceae) was accompanied by rDNA loci loss and intergenomic translocation: evidence for their common genome origin

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Background and Aims

In the genus Anemone two small groups of taxa occur with the highest ploidy levels 2n = 6x = 48, belonging to the closely related clades: the montane/alpine Baldensis clade and the more temperate Multifida clade. To understand the formation of polyploids within these groups, the evolution of allohexaploid A. baldensis (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 48) from Europe and allotetraploid Anemone multifida (BBDD, 2n = 4x = 32) from America was analysed.

Methods

Internal transcribed spacer and non-transcribed spacer sequences were used as molecular markers for phylogenetic analyses. Cytogenetic studies, including genomic in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of potential parental species as probe, fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S rDNA as probes and 18S rDNA restriction analyses, were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes and to study genomic changes following polyploidization.

Key Results

This study shows that A. multifida (BBDD, 2n= 4x = 32) and A. baldensis (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 48) are allopolyploids originating from the crosses of diploid members of the Multifida (donor of the A and B subgenomes) and Baldensis groups (donor of the D subgenome). The A and B subgenomes are closely related to the genomes of A. sylvestris, A. virginiana and A. cylindrica, indicating that these species or their progeny might be the ancestral donors of the B subgenome of A. multifida and A and B subgenomes of A. baldensis. Both polyploids have undergone genomic changes such as interchromosomal translocation affecting B and D subgenomes and changes at rDNA sites. Anemone multifida has lost the 35S rDNA loci characteristic of the maternal donor (B subgenome) and maintained only the rDNA loci of the paternal donor (D subgenome).

Conclusions

It is proposed that A. multifida and A. baldensis probably had a common ancestor and their evolution was facilitated by vegetation changes during the Quaternary, resulting in their present disjunctive distribution.

Keywords: 5S rDNA intergenic spacer; Anemone; fluorescence in situ hybridization; genomic in situ hybridization; intergenomic translocation; ITS; polyploidy

Journal Article.  6907 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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