Journal Article

Intraspecific karyotypic polymorphism is highly concordant with allozyme variation in <i>Lysimachia mauritiana</i> (Primulaceae: Myrsinoideae) in Taiwan: implications for the colonization history and dispersal patterns of coastal plants

Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung, Chih-Hui Chen, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Hiroaki Setoguchi, Chang-Hung Chou, Kazuo Oginuma and Ching-I Peng

in Annals of Botany

Published on behalf of The Annals of Botany Company

Volume 110, issue 6, pages 1119-1135
Published in print November 2012 | ISSN: 0305-7364
Published online September 2012 | e-ISSN: 1095-8290 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcs192
Intraspecific karyotypic polymorphism is highly concordant with allozyme variation in Lysimachia mauritiana (Primulaceae: Myrsinoideae) in Taiwan: implications for the colonization history and dispersal patterns of coastal plants

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Background and Aims

Investigating intraspecific karyotypic and genetic variations jointly can provide unique insights into how historical, ecological and cytogenetic factors influence microevolution. A coastal herb, Lysimachia mauritiana, exhibits extensive karyotypic polymorphism and displays a complex cytogeographic pattern across the Ryukyus. To explore whether a similar degree of chromosomal variation exists south of the Ryukyus, and in an attempt to ascertain the mechanisms that may have generated the patterns, comprehensive sampling was conducted in Taiwan.

Methods

Karyotypes were analysed at mitotic metaphase for 550 individuals from 42 populations throughout Taiwan Proper and its adjacent islands. In addition, genetic variation was estimated using 12 allozymes (21 loci) of 314 individuals sampled from 12 localities.

Key Results

Four chromosome numbers and eight cytotypes, including four endemic cytotypes, were detected. Cytotype distributions were highly structured geographically, with single cytotypes present in most populations and four major cytotypes dominating the north, east and south of Taiwan and the Penghu Archipelago. Allozyme variation was very low and F-statistics indicated an extremely high level of population differentiation, implying limited gene flow among populations. Cluster analysis of allozyme variation uncovered four geographic groups, each corresponding perfectly to the four dominant cytotypes. The geographic structure of cytotype distribution and allozyme variation probably resulted from severe genetic drift triggered by genetic bottlenecks, suggesting that Taiwanese populations were likely to be derived from four independent founder events. In the few localities with multiple cytotypes, cytogeographic patterns and inferences of chromosomal evolution revealed a trend of northward dispersal, consistent with the course of the Kuroshio Current that has been influential in shaping the coastal biota of the region.

Conclusions

The data elucidate the patterns of colonization and the effects of the Kuroshio Current on the distribution of L. mauritiana in Taiwan. These inferences are highly relevant to other coastal plant species in the region and will stimulate further studies.

Keywords: Cytogeography; cytotype; Kuroshio Current; Lysimachia mauritiana; population genetic structure; sea dispersal; Taiwan

Journal Article.  10597 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ecology and Conservation ; Evolutionary Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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