Journal Article

Salinity tolerance ecophysiology of <i>Equisetum giganteum</i> in South America: a study of 11 sites providing a natural gradient of salinity stress

Chad E. Husby, José Delatorre, Vittorio Oreste, Steven F. Oberbauer, Danielle T. Palow, Lázaro Novara and Alfredo Grau


Published on behalf of Annals of Botany Company

Volume 2011, issue Published in print January 2011 |
Published online August 2011 | e-ISSN: 2041-2851 | DOI:

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Background and aims

The basic set of adaptations necessary for salinity tolerance in vascular plants remains unknown. Although much has been published on salinity stress, almost all studies deal with spermatophytes. Studies of salinity tolerance in pteridophytes are relatively rare but hold promise for revealing the fundamental adaptations that all salt-tolerant vascular plants may share. The most basal pteridophytes to exhibit salinity tolerance are members of the genus Equisetum, including the giant horsetail, Equisetum giganteum, the only pteridophyte to occur in salinity-affected regions of the Atacama Desert valleys of northern Chile. Here it can constitute a significant vegetation component, forming dense stands of shoots >4 m high.


Physiological parameters (stomatal conductances; efficiency of photosystem II; sap osmotic potential) were measured in E. giganteum populations in northern Chile across a range of groundwater salinities at 11 sites. In addition, Na, K, electrical conductivity and total plant water potential were measured in the plants and groundwater from each site.

Principal results

Equisetum giganteum exhibits similar stomatal conductances and photochemical efficiencies of photosystem II across a wide range of groundwater salinities. It lowers cell sap osmotic potential with increasing salinity and produces positive root pressure, as evidenced by guttation, at the full range of salinities experienced in the Atacama Desert. Equisetum giganteum maintains low Na concentrations in its xylem fluid and cell sap when soil water Na is high. It also maintains high K/Na ratios in xylem fluid and cell sap when soil water has low K/Na ratios.


Equisetum giganteum is well adapted to salinity stress. Efficient K uptake and Na exclusion are important adaptations and closely similar to those of the facultative halophyte fern Acrostichum aureum.

Journal Article.  8001 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry

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