Journal Article

CRONOS: the cross-reference navigation server

Brigitte Waegele, Irmtraud Dunger-Kaltenbach, Gisela Fobo, Corinna Montrone, H.-Werner Mewes and Andreas Ruepp

in Bioinformatics

Volume 25, issue 1, pages 141-143
Published in print January 2009 | ISSN: 1367-4803
Published online November 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2059 | DOI:

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Summary: Cross-mapping of gene and protein identifiers between different databases is a tedious and time-consuming task. To overcome this, we developed CRONOS, a cross-reference server that contains entries from five mammalian organisms presented by major gene and protein information resources. Sequence similarity analysis of the mapped entries shows that the cross-references are highly accurate. In total, up to 18 different identifier types can be used for identification of cross-references. The quality of the mapping could be improved substantially by exclusion of ambiguous gene and protein names which were manually validated. Organism-specific lists of ambiguous terms, which are valuable for a variety of bioinformatics applications like text mining are available for download.

Availability: CRONOS is freely available to non-commercial users at, web services are available at


Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. The online Supplementary Material contains all figures and tables referenced by this article.

Journal Article.  1844 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology

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