Journal Article

Imaging of opioid receptors in the central nervous system

Gjermund Henriksen and Frode Willoch

in Brain

Published on behalf of The Guarantors of Brain

Volume 131, issue 5, pages 1171-1196
Published in print May 2008 | ISSN: 0006-8950
Published online November 2007 | e-ISSN: 1460-2156 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awm255

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In vivo functional imaging by means of positron emission tomography (PET) is the sole method for providing a quantitative measurement of μ-, κ and δ-opioid receptor-mediated signalling in the central nervous system. During the last two decades, measurements of changes to the regional brain opioidergic neuronal activation—mediated by endogenously produced opioid peptides, or exogenously administered opioid drugs—have been conducted in numerous chronic pain conditions, in epilepsy, as well as by stimulant- and opioidergic drugs. Although several PET-tracers have been used clinically for depiction and quantification of the opioid receptors changes, the underlying mechanisms for regulation of changes to the availability of opioid receptors are still unclear. After a presentation of the general signalling mechanisms of the opioid receptor system relevant for PET, a critical survey of the pharmacological properties of some currently available PET-tracers is presented. Clinical studies performed with different PET ligands are also reviewed and the compound-dependent findings are summarized. An outlook is given concluding with the tailoring of tracer properties, in order to facilitate for a selective addressment of dynamic changes to the availability of a single subclass, in combination with an optimization of the quantification framework are essentials for further progress in the field of in vivo opioid receptor imaging.

Keywords: PET; opioid receptors; pain; epilepsy; addiction

Journal Article.  16640 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology ; Neuroscience

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