Journal Article

Differing roles for members of the phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> superfamily in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Athena Kalyvas, Constantinos Baskakis, Victoria Magrioti, Violetta Constantinou-Kokotou, Daren Stephens, Rubèn López-Vales, Jian-Qiang Lu, V. Wee Yong, Edward A. Dennis, George Kokotos and Samuel David

in Brain

Published on behalf of The Guarantors of Brain

Volume 132, issue 5, pages 1221-1235
Published in print May 2009 | ISSN: 0006-8950
Published online February 2009 | e-ISSN: 1460-2156 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp002
Differing roles for members of the phospholipase A2 superfamily in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily hydrolyzes phospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, some of which can mediate inflammation and demyelination, hallmarks of the CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. The expression of two of the intracellular PLA2s (cPLA2 GIVA and iPLA2 GVIA) and two of the secreted PLA2s (sPLA2 GIIA and sPLA2 GV) are increased in different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. We show using small molecule inhibitors, that cPLA2 GIVA plays a role in the onset, and iPLA2 GVIA in the onset and progression of EAE. We also show a potential role for sPLA2 in the later remission phase. These studies demonstrate that selective inhibition of iPLA2 can ameliorate disease progression when treatment is started before or after the onset of symptoms. The effects of these inhibitors on lesion burden, chemokine and cytokine expression as well as on the lipid profile provide insights into their potential modes of action. iPLA2 is also expressed by macrophages and other immune cells in multiple sclerosis lesions. Our results therefore suggest that iPLA2 might be an excellent target to block for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

Keywords: EAE; multiple sclerosis; Phospholipase A2; fatty acids; chemokines; cytokines

Journal Article.  9578 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology ; Neuroscience

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