Journal Article

<i>NRSN1</i> associated grey matter volume of the visual word form area reveals dyslexia before school

Michael A. Skeide, Indra Kraft, Bent Müller, Gesa Schaadt, Nicole E. Neef, Jens Brauer, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Johannes Boltze and Angela D. Friederici

in Brain

Published on behalf of The Guarantors of Brain

Volume 139, issue 10, pages 2792-2803
Published in print October 2016 | ISSN: 0006-8950
Published online June 2016 | e-ISSN: 1460-2156 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww153
NRSN1 associated grey matter volume of the visual word form area reveals dyslexia before school

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Literacy learning depends on the flexibility of the human brain to reconfigure itself in response to environmental influences. At the same time, literacy and disorders of literacy acquisition are heritable and thus to some degree genetically predetermined. Here we used a multivariate non-parametric genetic model to relate literacy-associated genetic variants to grey and white matter volumes derived by voxel-based morphometry in a cohort of 141 children. Subsequently, a sample of 34 children attending grades 4 to 8, and another sample of 20 children, longitudinally followed from kindergarten to first grade, were classified as dyslexics and controls using linear binary support vector machines. The NRSN1-associated grey matter volume of the ‘visual word form area’ achieved a classification accuracy of ~ 73% in literacy-experienced students and distinguished between later dyslexic individuals and controls with an accuracy of 75% at kindergarten age. These findings suggest that the cortical plasticity of a region vital for literacy might be genetically modulated, thereby potentially preconstraining literacy outcome. Accordingly, these results could pave the way for identifying and treating the most common learning disorder before it manifests itself in school.

Keywords: dyslexia; visual word form area; NRSN1; imaging genetics; voxel-based morphometry

Journal Article.  9127 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience ; Neurology ; Psychiatry

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