Journal Article

Changes in methyl-sensitive restriction sites of liver DNA from hamsters chronically exposed to hydrazine sulfate

Hua Zheng and Ronald C. Shank

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 17, issue 12, pages 2711-2717
Published in print December 1996 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online December 1996 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/17.12.2711
Changes in methyl-sensitive restriction sites of liver DNA from
                    hamsters chronically exposed to hydrazine sulfate

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Hydrazine sulfate is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen for the hamster. A study was conducted to follow changes in DNA maintenance methylation in selected genes in liver DNA during the 21-month induction of liver adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas by demonstrating changes in restriction fragment length polymorphism. Male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to hydrazine sulfate in the drinking water at three concentrations (170, 340 and 510 mg/1) shown previously to result in a dose-dependent induction of liver tumors. Liver DNA from animals exposed to the high concentration for 6, 12, 16, 20 and 21 months and animals exposed to the low or mid concentration for 21 months was digested with EcoRI, MspI, HindIII or BamHl, or a combination of one of these endonucleases and a methyl-sensitive restriction enzyme, HpII or HhaI. The DNA digests were subjected to Southern analysis using a c-DNA probe for one of the following genes: DNA methyltransferase (DMT), c-Ha-ras, c-jun, c-fos, and c-myc proto-oncogenes, p53 tumor suppressor gene or γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Alteration in DNA restriction by methyl-sensitive endonucleases was detected in four (DMT, c-Ha-ras, p53 and c-jun) of the seven genes examined and as early as 6 months in animals exposed to the highest concentration of hydrazine sulfate; alteration of recognition sites in c-Ha-ras was also detected in DNA from animals exposed for 21 months to the intermediate concentration of hydrazine sulfate. Early changes in recognition sites, presumed to indicate altered methylation status of DNA cytosine and/or guanine mutations, were seen using c-DNA probes for DMT, c-Ha-ras and c-jun; in the p53 tumor suppressor gene alteration of such sites was a late event relevant to appearance of liver adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Evidence for hypomethylation in the p53 and c-jun genes and hypermethylation of the c-Ha-ras and DMT genes is provided. This study supports the induction of site-specific hypomethylation and hypermethylation during the course of hydrazine carcinogenesis.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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