Journal Article

Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of fumonisin B<sub>1</sub> in human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, esophageal epithelial cells and hepatoma cells

William H. Tolleson, William B. Melchior, Suzanne M. Morris, Lynda J. McGarrity, Olen E. Domon, Levan Muskhelishvili, S.Jill James and Paul C. Howard

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 17, issue 2, pages 239-249
Published in print February 1996 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online February 1996 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/17.2.239
Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of fumonisin B1 in human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, esophageal epithelial cells and hepatoma cells

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Fumonisin B1 is associated with various animal and human carcinomas and toxicoses, including leukoencelphalomalacia, hepatocarcinoma, pulmonary edema and esophageal carcinoma. We have examined the cellular effects of fumonisin B1 in vitro using cellular model systems relevant to potential human target tissues. Although fumonisin B1 has been described as a mitogen in Swiss 3T3 cells based on stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation, in the current work it was found that fumonisin B1 inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine by cultured neonatal human keratinocytes and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells at 10−7 and 10−4 M respectively. Fumonisin B1 also inhibited clonal expansion of normal human keratinocytes and HET-1A human esophageal epithelial cells at 10−5 M and growth in mass culture of normal human fibroblasts at 10−7 M. The clonogenicity of normal human keratinocytes decreased to 45.5% of controls afterexposure to 10−4 M fumonisin B1 for 2 days. However, no differences in the cell cycle distribution of cultured keratinocytes was noted after exposure to 10−5 M fumonisin B1 for 40 h. Theviability of normal human keratinocytes and HET-1A cells decreased as a result of fumonisin B1 treatment, as determined by a fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide flow cytometric cell viability assay. Fumonisin B1-treated keratinocytes released nucleosomal DNA fragments into the medium 2–3 days after exposure to 10−4 M fumonisin B1 and increased DNA strand breaks were detected in attached keratinocytes exposed to 0–10−4 M fumonisin B1 using a terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-based immunochemical assay system. Furthermore, fumonisin B1-treated keratinocytes and HET-1A cells developed morphological features consistent with apoptosis, as determined by phase contrast microscopy, fluorescent microscopy of acridine orange stained cells and electron microscopy. These results are consistent with the occurrence of fumonisin B1-mediated apoptosis in vitro.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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