Journal Article

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Uptake of the food-derived heterocyclic amine carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-<i>b</i>]pyridine and its <i>N</i>-hydroxy metabolite into rat pancreatic acini and hepatocytes <i>in vitro</i>

N.J. Butcher, R.F. Minchin, F.F. Kadlubar and K.F. llett

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 17, issue 4, pages 889-892
Published in print April 1996 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online April 1996 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/17.4.889
SHORT COMMUNICATION: Uptake of the food-derived heterocyclic amine
                    carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine and
                    its N-hydroxy metabolite into rat pancreatic acini and
                    hepatocytes in vitro

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Since DNA adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are formed at relatively high levels in the rat pancreas but not liver, we examined the uptake of PhIP and its N-hydroxy metabolite (N-OH-PhIP) into pancreatic acini and hepatocytes to determine if differential tissue uptake was a factor modulating the formation of PhIP-DNA adducts. In addition, since the precursors of PhIP formation are two amino acids and since various amino acid transporters have been identified in the pancreas, the possible involvement of these transporters in the uptake of PhIP and N-OH-PhIP was investigated. The uptake of both heterocyclic compounds into both tissue preparations was rapid, with maximal uptake occurring within 1–2 min. However, PhIP uptake into pancreatic acini was significantly (2-way ANOVA, P < 0.05) greater than uptake of N-OH-PhIP into pancreatic acini and the uptake of both PhIP and N-OH-PhIP into hepatocytes. Although uptake wasrapid, efflux of both compounds from both tissue preparations was also rapid. However, the efflux rate constant (1.86 ± 0.6/min, mean ± SEM) for PhIP was significantly lower (Student's t-test, P < 0.05) than that for N-OH-PhIP (4.14 ± 0.04/min) from pancreatic acini. This,combined with the increased uptake of PhIP into pancreatic acini, suggests that there is substantial but reversible binding of PhIP in the pancreas. The uptake of both PhIP and N-OH-PhIP into pancreatic acini and hepatocytes was not affected by the presence of various amino acids in the incubation buffer, indicating that amino acid transporters are not involved in uptake of these compounds. Furthermore, uptake of both compounds did not appear to be dependent on metabolic energy supply. The above data, together with the high octanol: buffer partition coefficients (logP = 1.322 and 1.301 for PhIP and N-OH-PhIP respectively) suggest that both uptake and efflux of PhIP and N-OH-PhIP are consistent with a process of passive diffusion. The tissue binding characteristics for PhIP in the pancreas may create conditions whereby pancreatic cytochrome P450 1A1 can catalyse the formation of N-OH-PhIP While N-OH-PhIP is not the ultimate reactive DNA binding species, it has been shown to directly bind to and form DNA adducts. Therefore, it is possible that the apparent selective accumulation of PhIP may contribute to the high level of PhIP-DNA adducts formed in the rat pancreas.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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