Journal Article

ACCELERATED PAPER: Identification of human tumour suppressor genes by monochromosome transfer: rapid growth-arrest response mapped to 9p21 is mediated solely by the cyclin-D-dependent kinase inhibitor gene, <i>CDKN2A(p16<sup>INK4A</sup></i>)

Nicole L. England, Andrew P. Cuthbert, Deborah A. Trott, Sarah Jezzard, Tsutomu Nobori, Dennis A. Carson and Robert F. Newbold

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 17, issue 8, pages 1567-1575
Published in print August 1996 | ISSN: 0143-3334
e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/17.8.1567
ACCELERATED PAPER: Identification of human tumour suppressor genes by monochromosome transfer: rapid growth-arrest response mapped to 9p21 is mediated solely by the cyclin-D-dependent kinase inhibitor gene, CDKN2A(p16INK4A)

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Microcell transfer of intact normal human chromosomes into immortal mouse and hamster fibroblast cell lines has revealed growth suppressive activity associated with a small sub-set of the human complement. Here, we describe the results of a detailed study aimed at identifying the gene or genes responsible for the rapid growth-arrest response obtained with human chromosome-9. Initially, STS-PCR deletion mapping of segregants arising in monochromosome transfer experiments was used successfully to localize the active sub-chromosomal region to 9p21. Subsequent fine structure deletion mapping of previously uninformative hybrid segregants, employing additional markers between D9S162 and D9S171, provided strong evidence that the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor gene CDKN2A (p16INK4A) was solely responsible for the chromosome-9 effect; 9p21 microdeletions in a significant proportion of segregant clones were restricted to a single CDKN2A exon. Transfection experiments with CDKN2A and CDKN2B cDNA expression vectors, using mouse A9 cells and three human malignant melanoma cell lines as recipients, provided further evidence in support of this hypothesis. Collectively, our results indicated that expression of human CDKN2A (controlled either by its natural regulatory elements, or by a cytomegalovirus promoter) is incompatible with in vitro proliferation in immortalized rodent cells and in human melanoma cell lines. The rapidity of the growth inhibitory effects of CDKN2A was inconsistent with a mode of action involving induction of replicative cell senescence via telomerase repression, but was consistent with a mechanism based on cell cycle arrest through cdk inhibition. The study described here has generated a panel of microdeleted monochromosome-9 donor hybrids which may prove valuable in functional investigations aimed at identifying other important tumour suppressor genes located on human chromosome-9.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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