Journal Article

Gene expression and cellular sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase during tumor promotion

Fredika M. Robertson, Brooks W. Long, Kathleen L. Tober, Mary S. Ross and Tatiana M. Oberyszyn

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 17, issue 9, pages 2053-2059
Published in print September 1996 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online September 1996 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/17.9.2053
Gene expression and cellular sources of inducible nitric oxide
                    synthase during tumor promotion

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The present studies examined the temporal sequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and the cellular sources of iNOS protein and of 3-nitrotyrosine, as a marker of production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates during murine multi-stage carcino-genesis. Levels of iNOS mRNA in dorsal skin isolated from acetone-treated female Sencar mice were 2.5-fold higher than iNOS gene expression detected in cutaneous tissue isolated from Sencar mice at 1,3,6,10,16 and 22 weeks after exposure to a single topical application of 25 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) followed by repetitive applications of 2μg 17-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Papillomas isolated at 16 and 22 weeks of a tumor promotion protocol also had low levels of iNOS mRNA. The diminished levels of iNOS mRNA inversely correlated with the extent of TPA-induced epidermal hyper-plasia. In acetone-treated mouse skin, iNOS immunospecific antibody binding was localized to the stratum corneum and suprabasal keratinocytes. In contrast, iNOS protein was present in lower amounts and was localized to the upper-most suprabasal keratinocytes in cutaneous tissue isolated at 22 weeks following a single exposure to either 25 nmol DMBA or acetone and repetitive applications of 2 μg TPA. At all time points examined over the 22 week time period of papilloma growth, infiltrating neutrophils within the dermis bound significant levels of anti-iNOS antibodies. The production of iNOS by neutrophils within the dermis correlated with the formation of protein nitro-tyrosination within the dermal tissue, as detected by 3-nitrotyrosine-specific antibodies. The present studies indicate that iNOS and reactive nitrogen intermediates, including peroxynitrite, are produced specifically by dermal neutrophils during the tumor promotion process at time points that correspond to simultaneous production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Conversely, iNOS is simultaneously down-regulated in hyperplastic epidermis and in papillomas.

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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