Journal Article

Assessment of the human exposure to heterocyclic amines.

K Augustsson, K Skog, M Jägerstad and G Steineck

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 18, issue 10, pages 1931-1935
Published in print October 1997 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online October 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI:
Assessment of the human exposure to heterocyclic amines.

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Heterocyclic amines are possible human carcinogens and fried meat is an important source of exposure in the Western diet. To study the effect of heterocyclic amines in humans, accurate assessment of individual food consumption is essential. Parameters influencing the intake include the amount and type of meat ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking method, cooking temperature and the duration of cooking. The aim of the present study was to develop a practical method for assessing individual intakes of specific heterocyclic amines in a large sample of people. This has been done by combining information on food consumption and laboratory findings of heterocyclic amines in food products. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including photos of fried meat and, in all, 22 dishes were cooked and chemically analyzed. The method was employed in an elderly population in Stockholm to estimate the daily mean intake of the five heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The total daily intake ranged from none to 1816 ng, with a mean intake of 160 ng, which is well below estimates reported previously. Highest amounts ingested were of PhIP (mean 72, range 0-865 ng/day) and MeIQx (mean 72, range 0-1388 ng/day), followed by DiMeIQx (mean 16, range 0-171 ng/day), while MeIQ and IQ were ingested only in very small amounts (mean <1 ng/day).

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Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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