Journal Article

Formation of catechol estrogen glutathione conjugates and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-dependent nephrotoxicity of 17beta-estradiol in the golden Syrian hamster.

M Butterworth, S S Lau and T J Monks

in Carcinogenesis

Volume 18, issue 3, pages 561-567
Published in print March 1997 | ISSN: 0143-3334
Published online March 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2180 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/18.3.561
Formation of catechol estrogen glutathione conjugates and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-dependent nephrotoxicity of 17beta-estradiol in the golden Syrian hamster.

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In an animal model of hormone-mediated carcinogenesis, male golden Syrian hamsters develop renal carcinoma following prolonged exposure to 17beta-estradiol. The basis for the species and tissue specificity is unclear. Detailed information on the disposition of 17beta-estradiol in this model is lacking. Because catechol estrogens have been implicated in this model of carcinogenesis, we investigated the metabolism and nephrotoxicity of 17beta-estradiol in golden Syrian hamsters, with emphasis on the formation of catechol estrogen thioethers. 17beta-Estradiol (50 micromol/kg, i.p.) is a mild nephrotoxicant, causing significant elevations in the urinary excretion of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose. Increases in renal protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides, which are markers of oxidative damage, also occur after administration of 17beta-estradiol (50 micromol/kg, i.p.). 17beta-Estradiol-mediated nephrotoxicity is reduced by treating animals with acivicin, an inhibitor of gamma-GT, implying that toxicity is mediated by metabolites requiring metabolism by this enzyme. Following administration of 17beta-[14C]estradiol (100 micromol/kg) to hamsters, 9.7% of the dose is recovered in bile after 5 h, the majority (7.9%) representing aqueous metabolites. Seven catechol estrogen GSH conjugates were identified, 2-hydroxy-1,4-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, 2-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, 2-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 4-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 4-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, and 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol. At 5.4 micromol/kg of 17beta-estradiol, a dose-reflective of daily exposure levels in the hamster model of nephrocarcinogenicity, 12% of the dose is recovered within 5 h as a combination of GSH conjugates of 2- and 4-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol and 2- and 4-hydroxyestrone. In summary, oxidation of catechol estrogens, followed by GSH conjugation, occurs in vivo and 17beta-estradiol is a mild nephrotoxicant in a manner dependent on the activity of gamma-GT.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics

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